Ferns proliferate locally. On the ungrazed land the dragon-headed shoots of the loathed bracken emerge in spring and grow rapidly to cover the hills in impenetrable swathes that glow in the autumn.

In the woods and hedgerows, male and lady ferns uncurl and stretch for the light, some remaining green thoughout the winter to be dusted with frost or trapped in ice, others drying into tousled curls.